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INDIANS 

AT WORK 



OCTOBER 1941 



Notes On The Contents 



The front cover picture was made while a Navajo CCC worker was building a new 
barn and corral to house a fir.e stallion recently purchased by the Navajo tribe. This 
picture from the Leupp district of the Navajo Reservation was taken by Milton Snow, 
Navajo Service photographer. Similar activity is going forward in other districts 
where stallions are being purchased to improve the breed of horses on the reservation. 

Another picture by Milton Snow appears on page 30. In the construction of 
this storage dam, entirely by hand labor, Navajo CCC workers, as seen in the picture, 
demonstrated skill, precision, and courage. 

The frontispiece picture by John Vachon, Farm Security photographer, needs 
no explanation. If labeled, it would simply be "Summer." The boy is an Indian of 
Minnesota. 

Photographs contributed by H. Armstrong Roberts for use in "Indians At Work" 
appear on pages 3 and 29. 

Clifford Segarbloom, Bureau of Reclamation photographer, added some interest- 
ing pictures to the Department's photographic files when he visited the Supai Indians 
recently in their remote little valley home in the Grand Canyon country. The Supai, 
who take for their name their word for the "sky blue waters" of Cataract Canyon, can 
be reached only by horse pack and foot. They themselves love to ride horses, as evi- 
denced by Mr. Segarbloom' s picture, on page 5« 

Many of the boys who mastered various welding skills at Haskell Institute 
are now employed in defence industries. Last spring Haskell secured an old Army plane 
for practice purposes, and Richard Hunter, a Caddo-Delaware Indian, is pictured looking 
it over on page 8. On page 10, John Welch, Cherokee student assistant to Welding In- 
structor Jimmy Davis, demonstrates with a needle the precision Haskell student welders 
aim for. Some broken sewing needles repaired by the boy-welders have been on exhibit 
at the University of Kansas. These two pictures are from Gordon Brown, of the Haskell 
staff. 

Frank Werner, Department photographer, made the portrait of George LaVatta on 
page 1U. The picture of E. J. Skidmore, Indian Service personnel officer, is furnished 
through the eourtesy of the Community News, Alexandria, Virginia. The picture of "Cap" 
Nyce, retired Indian Service forester, was made by W. H. Tippert Studio, Billings, 
Montana. 

On page 20 are shown Joe Garry, Mrs. Roosevelt, and the Hon. John Tolan, 
looking over an Indian exhibit in the Indian Affairs Committee Room, House of Repre- 
sentatives, last January. Joe Garry visited Washington with Sister Providencia, daugh- 
ter of Congressman Tolan, here to win support for the Kateri arts and crafts movement 
in the Northwest. Joe Garry has written an article on the cooperative movement, which 
appears on page 21. The picture was made by Hyman Greenberg, of the Department's Pho- 
tographic Section. 

William Fox made the picture at Parker Dam, shown on page 23 , while employed 
with the Los Angeles Metropolitan Water District several years ago. The Pueblo Indian 
boy in the intricacies of a hoop dance, shown on page 2U, is another in a series of 
pictures released by Transcontinental and Western Airlines, on the recent Pueblo stu- 
dent pilgrimage to old Mexico. 

Joe Brittain, Mission Indian, shown on page JU, Is employed at Carson Agency, 
Stewart, Nevada. The picture is by Arthur Rothstein, former FSA photographer. The Es- 
kimo tot on the back cover is little Amelia Clark of Keewalik, Alaska. The picture was 
made several years ago by the Department's Photographic Chief, Ray Dame. 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR - OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS-WASHINGTON, DC 



INDIANS AT WORK 

OCTOBER 1941 



IN THIS ISSUE 





Notes On The Contents Ins ide Front Cover 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Two Inter-American Publications On Indian Affairs 7 

Haskell Student Practices Welding 

(Photo by Gordon Brown) 3 



From Needles To Battleships Eleanor Williams 



A Cooperative In Europe's Black Forest Solved 

An Allotment Tangle Ward Shepard 11 

Army Tank Is A Turtle 13 

George LaVatta Wins Recognition As An Out- 
standing Indian . XU 

Montana Cree-Chippewa Develops A Coal Mine R. W. Windbigler 15 

Girls At Riverside Boarding School, Oklahoma 

(Photo by Peter Sekaer) 16 

Employment of Indians Is Part of His Job 

(E. J. Skidmore) 17 

A Story Of The West - An Unusual Career 

(George M. Nyce) 18 

Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt Views Indian Exhibit 

(Photo by Hyman Greenberg) 20 

Young Indian Finds Way Out For His People Joe Garry 21 

Mojave Indian Couple At Parker Dam, Arizona 

(Photo by William Fox) 23 

Indians In The News 25 

Salish Indian At A Celebration (Photo by 

Andrew T. Kelley) 26 

From The Mail Bag 28 

Navajo CCC Workers (Photo by Milton Snow) 30 

Indians Conserving And Rebuilding Their Re- 
sources Through CCC-ID 31 

Oklahoma Inter-Tribal Meeting (Photo by Peter 

Sekaer) 32 

Mission Indian Worker At Carson Agency, Nevada 

(Photo by Arthur Rothstein) 34 

A Great Lawmaker Is Dead (Congressman Edward 

T. Taylor) Inside Back Cover 




AT WORK 

A News Sheet For INDIANS and me INDIAN SERVICE 

VOLUME IX OCTOBER 1941 NUMBER 2 



On September 10, at a meeting of our Washington personnel of In- 
dian Service, I made some remarks which had not been prepared in advance. 
It has been suggested that the field should have these remarks, so I use 
them in place cf an editorial. 

"I shan't talk with you about the thrift plan. It is just a plan 
of saving some of your money - our money - at an interest rate that about 
equals that of savings banks, and of thus helping our country. But the oc- 
casion has to do with the National Defense. If you will allow me, I will 
talk a little about that. 

"I think it is coming over the mind of people rather rapidly now, 
that we are within a situation - call it war, or don't call it war - a sit- 
uation that embraces literally the whole world, which is graver than any of 
us has faced in his life - perhaps graver than any our country has faced in 
its life - perhaps the gravest, most fateful situation in which the world 
has ever found itself. People are beginning to become conscious of that 
fact. Whether we go nominally into the war as a belligerent, or whether the 
national policy as thus far developed is simply made effective, still we are 
in the position where we are fighting for our lives and fighting for civil- 
ization in the world. What America does, almost certainly is going to de- 
termine the outcome of the World War. We might not go a step further into 
belligerency than we have gone, still what we do is almost sure to determine 
the outcome of the World War - the outcome in Europe, in Asia, in Africa, 
and here. 

"I want to say a word about how we have done so far. We have been 
slow and confused, admittedly not efficient, admittedly we have not brought 
our wills to bear in any very noble way yet. But after England has been in 
the War, knowing that it was life or death, for a whole year, she had not 
done any better than we have done who are not at war, not belligerent, not 
threatened with imminent invasion. After a whole year, France was in a far 



less prepared condition of mind than we are, although we are not a belliger- 
ent. I have been reading lately a book we all ought to read, both for its 
excitement and its information - I refer to "Berlin Diary" by Shirer. The 
most impressive thing in that Diary is not what it tells about Germany, but 
what it tells about the countries around Germany - Holland and Belgium, for 
example - which up to the hour of the day they were overrun were irrespon- 
sible in their thinking, burying their heads in the sand of the most path- 
etic self -fooling illusion. And so if we compare ourselves and how far we 
have gone - we, still behind the imagined security of a great ocean; we, not 
at war; if we compare it with what went on in the first year of the war in 
England, and France, in the jeopardized countries all around Germany - we 
do not have to be ashamed. 

"And fundamentally, not to be war-minded, not to find it easy to 
concentrate one's thought on preparation for war, is not a thing to be 
ashamed of. As a matter of fact, this vast horrible event that is going on 
in the world no.v, if democracy triumphs, could be, perhaps will be, the 
means of making it possible never any more to have to concentrate on war. 
That might come out of the present horror. We should say: That must come 
out of it. It didn't come out of the last World War, but the convulsion 
of this war is indefinitely more profound, more disintegrating, than the 
convulsion of the first World War. So, while I imagine each of us has a 
feeling of dissatisfaction with himself, with his neighbor, with his coun- 
try, about the way the challenge has been met in this country, all we can 
say is that we have met it as well as China at the beginning, or as well as 
England at the beginning, and so on, although we have been less immediately 
in danger, less immediately attacked or menaced than any of those other 
countries. 

"I might try to say a word about why it is our supreme concern 
that this country do its full part, at least within the limits of the de- 
clared policy - the policy of Congress as declared to date - the policy of 
maximum aid to the governments resisting the Axis. What we are confronting 
in Germany definitely is a philosophy carried out exhaustively into prac- 
tice, carried out with a thoroughness and an efficiency and a hardihood 
which certainly has not been witnessed before in modern times — a philoso- 
phy and a practice, a program, an ambition, a purpose - a philosophy and 
program that individuality shall be stamped out of the human race. Person- 
ality shall die. That is the essence of Nazi creed and philosophy. That 
man shall become wholly an instrument, wholly a slave of the collectivity - 
call it the State - the collectivity consciously, sincerely devoted to per- 
petual war , to conquest without any bounds, which must be world-wide. That 
is what we are confronting. We talk about democracy being imperiled, free- 
corn being imperiled - the free way of life, free enterprise, religion. Yes, 
they are all of them imperiled because the thing that is at the heart of 
them all, the thing that is all of them - that is, simply, personality, 
individual, human personality - is imperiled, imperiled by a program which 
with complete deliberation is working to stereotype the whole race into the 
pattern of the slave. That is what they say of themselves. That is what 
they do, except that they always do more, not less, than they say. Hitler 



has never failed to more than make good on any evil pledge he has given, 
any pledge that is directed against life, personality, the soul. 

"Now, whether a victorious Axis struck at us with military might, 
next year or in five years, it is already striking, and even striking with- 
in our own national boundaries, at our values and our philosophy of life, 
our religion, all that gives dignity, meaning to our existences, that war- 
fare is upon us now. And inevitably, if the Nazis triumphed, the e conomic 
warfare would march at once, and would lap every one of our boundaries and 
shores. And just as certainly the military onset would come, be it now, 
or in five years, or in ten years. And what are five years, what are ten 
years in the life of a society? We surely are as much concerned about a 
horror that may be visited on us five years hence, as about the same horror 
if only one year off. 

"Our role now is that of production, vastly increased production, 
delivered to the peoples who are resisting the Axis - China, England, Rus- 
sia, and so on. We have got to schedule our production on a scale much 
vaster than we have even scheduled it yet, and we have got to produce and 
deliver on that vaster scale, if we are going to avoid all that I have been 
trying to specify. That is going to entail expenditures by the Government - 
tax-raised, but more largely loan-raised - not only as great as those going 
on, now, or as great as the larger amount projected for next year, but three 
or four times as great, perhaps. It is going to entail other adjustments 
than tax-paying or bond-buying, direct and indirect adjustments that will 
affect the life of each of us more and more and into which we must enter not 
resistingly, not morosely because we are forced to, but because we want to . 
Deep transforations are ahead, even though we don't go into belligerency. 
It is in our power to make of these transformations a rebirth of our good 
life, a rebirth of our faith, of our unselfishness, or our ardor. All will 
depend upon the spirit in which we endure and act. 

"Just a word about why all these things ought to concern us In- 
dian Service people more than other people, perhaps. The Indian Service 
under ancient policies made of the Indians something suggestive of that 
which Hitler is trying to make of the conquered races. It did that - the 
world knows it. The ancient policy is all changed now. We are endeavoring 
to set the Indian free from that past which was our white race ' s doing, 
that past that made war upon his personality, made war upon his heart and 
soul and life. We are doing that liberating work; the Indian is doing it. 
In the process of our work, we are emphasizing as far as we can, in every 
policy and every procedure, the concept of local democracy, of the fullest 
participation of the individual Indian's personality in the life of his 
tribe, the life of the jurisdiction, of the community; the fullest par- 
ticipation of the individual Indian, the group, the neighborhood, the fam- 
ily, the tribe, in their own affairs and in the larger affairs of the world. 
The keynote of all we are doing is democracy conceived as the most dynamic 
of all the ideals and all the institutions that there are. Democracy, con- 
ceived not meagerly as only a voting and electing people to office, but dem- 
ocracy conceived as the giving of the self ardently into the hopes and the 



The Havasupai In 
Their Remote Canyon 
Home, Ride Horseback 
From Morning To Night. 




strivings of the community. And we are discovering that democracy con- 
ceived in that way has never died from Indian life. It is very ancient in 
Indian life - definite and ancient and strong, and it never died. It has 
surged up to meet the opportunity, to meet the challenge which the Indian 
is confronting now, and wonderful things are happening out in the Indian 
country through the setting free of the springs of life in the Indian by 
methods of democracy experimentally applied. We Indian Service workers 
are, in the nature of our task, devoted in our professional careers to the 
intensifying of democracy. We are working, true, for only 4-00,000 Indians, 
but the results of our work, in the measure that we do forge out a success- 
ful program, will radiate clear down to Patagonia, to the population of more 
than 30,000,000 Indians who are the dominant population of many countries 
south of here. 

"We ought to be more prepared, more sensitized to understand the 
horror of Naziism and to understand the hope of America, than workers in 
most government service. And we can't care deeply enough, feel enough, 
think enough, do enough to help in the supreme effort of our country now. 
Upon our country, unsolicited, unsought, has been thrown the decision of 
whether the spirit of man shall live or die. We didn't seek it, but we 
have that responsibility, we have accepted it, and what we do in the next 
year or two or three years will make the fate of the next thousand years in 
Europe and here. 

"I have taken the occasion of this little plan of investment in 
Government bonds to try to say to you what I know is in the minds of many 
here, and in my own mind so much that I just had to talk about it." 

In the remarks here quoted, I mention the importance of our Indian 
program here in the United States to the thirty million Indians who live in 
other American nations. Just recently there came to my desk a copy of Vol- 
ume I, No. 1 of the "Boletin Indigenista" of the Inter-American Indian In- 
stitute to Mexico City. This bulletin will appear bi-monthly as a supple- 
ment to "America Indigena", a quarterly magazine to be published by the same 
organization. These publications will be printed in English and Spanish, 
and will deal comprehensively with the hopes, aspirations and problems of 
all the Indians of the Western Hemisphere, and will also report on the work 
of governmental agencies which are serving these Indians. I hope that ev- 
ery reader who is interested in the Indians of all the Americas will find it 
possible to subscribe to these important publications. A fuller description, 
and information on how to subscribe, will be found in succeeding pages. 



Cr Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



TWO INTER-AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS ON INDIAN AFFAIRS 



The Inter-American Indian Institute in Mexico City has informed 
the Office of Indian Affairs that it will publish two periodicals devoted 
to the study of Indian Affairs in the Americas. 

AMERICA INDIGENA, a quarterly, will make its first appearance this 
fall, with articles by leading Indianists of North and South America printed 
in both English and Spanish. 

A bi-monthly news bulletin, the BOLETIN INDIG2NISTA, also in both 
English and Spanish, will be issued as a supplement to the quarterly maga- 
zine to furnish current news on matters of interest to students of Indian 
affairs throughout the hemisphere. 

Both AMERICA INDIGENA and the BOLETIN fill a long felt need in the 
field of Indian culture. They have a unique function to perform. True, 
there are publications in each American country dealing with the specific 
facets of Indian life, but there has been a need for a publication which, 
leaping over the barriers of language, would coordinate scientific and cul- 
tural information, supply news of current interest, in the world of Indian 
affairs, and serve as a medium for promoting better understanding of Indian 
life in the New World. 

For the reader's convenience, the magazine and the bulletin will 
be issued in the same size, so that they may be easily bound. Such a collec- 
tion would be an invaluable source of information to students of Indian 
problems, to Indian Service administrators, and to all persons interested in 
Indian life and culture in their own and in the other American countries. 

Because the Institute hopes that these periodicals will serve to 
further cooperation among Indians and Indianists in the study of methods for 
improving the life of the Indian population of the American nations, it in- 
vites experts in Indian education, in anthropology, sociology, medicine, ag- 
riculture, Indian Service administration, economics and allied fields to con- 
tribute articles, book reviews, and news items. All material will be pub- 
lished in the language in which it is written, with resumes or translations 
into the other language use. 

Subscription rates, given below, include both AMERICA INDIGENA and 
the BOLETIN. Blanks may be sent directly to the Inter-American Indian Insti- 
tute at Orozco y Berra 1 - 304, Mexico, D.F., Mexico, or to the -Division of 
Inter-American Cooperation, Office of Indian Affairs, Washington, D. C. , 
which will forward them to the Institute. All checks should be made payable 
to the Instituto Indigenista Interamericano . 




?.. 



/ 






/ 




» 






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- 



FROM NEEDLES TO BATTLESHIPS 

By Eleanor Williams 



"We can weld anything from the broken eye of a sewing needle to a 
battleship" is the motto of the Indian boys in Jimmy Davis's welding shop 
at Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kansas. And the rate at which the boys are 
getting jobs in Uncle Sam's defense program proves their words are not un- 
founded. 

Welding the broken eye of a sewing needle may sound trivial but 
it is a ticklish job. Imagine what a flaming torch in the hands of an un- 
trained person would do to a tiny needle. The needle would probably melt 
in a fraction of a second. But not at Haskell. Needle repairing is not 
undertaken as practical training in Mr. Davis's class, but some of the stu- 
dents will repair a needle's eye for you just to demonstrate their skill. 

Normally, Mr. Davis'* class numbers 25 or 30 boys. In the last 
few months, however, the class has been reduced to a dozen. Students this 
year and graduates of recent years have landed jobs in private industry en- 
gaged in filling defense orders. Careful welding of the metal parts in an 
airplane, steamship, tank or transport means the difference between safe and 
unsafe craft. The boys from Haskell are proving to be as good as any men on 
the jobs. 

At Standard Steel Works, Kansas City, Missouri, six boys from 
Haskell are working on trailer tanks which transport gasoline for refueling 
purposes. The boys are welding aluminum, which is one of the most difficult 
metals because it doesn't change color with heat and may burn if not care- 
fully watched. At Columbian Steel Tank Works, also in Kansas City, four 
Haskell boys are employed in welding storage tanks for Army use. 

Harry Clement, Creek, has a job at Cessna Aircraft, Wichita, Kan- 
sas, which has been making training bombers for Canada. Harry is studying 
airplane construction at night, with the hope that he can become an aeronau- 
tical engineer. 

Walter Larson, Chippewa, who graduated from Haskell last year, 
worked for Standard Steel Works in Kansas City before taking a Civil Service 
examination as welder. He passed the examination and is now employed in the 
Bremerton Navy Yards, Bremerton, Washington. 

Education at Haskell is thoroughly practical. Twelve different 
trades are offered for boys and part of the students' training is the main- 
tenance of the 100 buildings on the campus. Students who have had experi- 
ence in several trades, such as plumbing, power plant operation or auto me- 
chanics seem to make the best welders, Mr. Davis says, because they under- 



10 



stand the practical applications of welding. The boys are given experience 
in every line of welding, both gas and electric. 

A prize possession of the shop is an old Army bomber, and boys who 
want to be airplane welders are getting intensive training through welding 
its parts. 

"Training the students is only half the job," says G. Warren 
Spaulding, Superintendent of Haskell Institute. "Unless we can find posi- 
tions for them in Government or private industry, we consider our job only 
half done. A number of the students at Haskell have obtained jobs before 
their school courses were completed. For example, one boy who was majoring 
in electricity last year received a temporary job with an electric company 
in Topeka, Kansas, for the summer months. In a short time the company 
boosted his pay. By fall the boy had received a second pay raise and had 
gotten married. The company wrote us he was as good as any man employed, so 
instead of making him return for another year of welding, Haskell sent him a 
diploma. " 

As Haskell has the best shops in the State, Superintendent Spauld- 
ing has offered its facilities to the State for defense training. 



Welding A Needle, Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kansas. 




11 
A Cooperative In Europe s Black Forest Solved An Allotment Tangle 

By Ward Shepard 

Indians are not the only people who have been bedevilled by get- 
ting their common lands into private ownership and subdivided and re-sub- 
divided by inheritance. Several years ago, while investigating forest pol- 
icies and administration in several European countries, I ran onto an in- 
teresting forest cooperative on the Murg River in the Black Forest. This 
cooperative had grown up centuries ago as a solution of a regular mess that 
had come about through subdividing a forest originally held in common owner- 
ship. The parallel with our own problem of allotted and inherited land is 
so striking that it is worth recording for whatever light or encouragement 
it may give us. Indians on the allotted reservations have special reason 
to study any and all possible solutions of the complex ownership pattern, 
because it is on them that the burden of an uneconomic system of land tenure 
will ultimately fall. 

Forest Cooperative 

To refresh my memory, I have translated the following account 
from an authoritative source: 

"The Forest Association of the Murg River Boatmen originated in 
the fifteenth century through the fact that the raftsmen who floated timber 
down the Murg River to the Rhine organized as a cooperative society. From 
primitive times they already owned a forest which, however, had been divided 
up into privately-owned parcels. In the sixteenth century each boatman 
could cut for his own use a specified amount of lumber or wood, but the 
bulk of the timber was reserved for rafting down river. The sum of the in- 
dividual timber rights was reckoned as constituting the collective cutting 
rights of the Association. Consequently private ownership of individual 
parcels of the forest lost its meaning, and since the boundaries of these 
parcels had fallen into dire confusion, common utilization of the forest 
was reestablished. 

"The old Murg Forest Association was reorganized by statute in 
I896 into a legal cooperative corporation. The property of the cooperative 
in forest lands, together with farm lands, meadows, and homesteads, is up- 
wards of 12,000 acres. The management is carried on by the Association's 
forestry staff, whose director is a state official. 

Membership Limited 

"Membership in the Association is limited to those who acquired 
ownership of timber rights. Since 1893 the enterprise consisted of 100,000 
ideal shares or so-called forest rights. The proprietorship of these forest 
rights constitutes the ownership of the Association forest and gives the 
basis for the distribution of the income. These forest rights are trans- 
ferable; consequently ownership changes constantly. In order to gain an 




Loading Timber From Klamath Indian Forests, Oregon. 



influence in the administration of the 
forest management and control, the Stat 
to buy these forest rights or shares * 
were owned by the State. The value of 
was at least 150 marks (about $37.50), 
the sum of 15 million marks (about $3, 
the value of the shares has increased 
value 



property and to bring in an orderly 
e of Baden has bought and continues 
In 1913 more than half these shares 
a forest share before the World War 
so that all the shares represented 
750,000). Through State purchase 
significantly over their earlier 



Receipts Go Into Association's Treasury 

"The receipts from timber, as well as those from other uses, such 
as the leasing of farm lands and from hunting and fishing, go into the as- 
sociation's treasury. The costs of forest management are borne equally 
by the State and the Association." 



Note the important points in this case. These boatmen had a co- 
operative business of cutting and rafting timber, and the boundaries of 
the private parcels, through inheritance, had become so tangled up that 
private ownership of individual parcels ceased to have a meaning. What 
these people were really interested in was getting their share of the in- 
come, so they voluntarily pooled their forest holdings. I can imagine that 



13 



this took a tremendous amount of argument and quarreling before it was 
worked out, and there must have been opposing factions, and conflict be- 
tween vested interests and common sense. Anyhow, they straightened out 
the mess and it worked for three centuries. 

Then the State stepped in and organized this voluntary Association 
into a cooperative corporation. It did this partly because the use rights 
of the owners had become pretty complicated through these centuries and 
partly because it was necessary to introduce more scientific management in 
the public interest. 

State Issued "Ideal Shares " 

The solution worked out is very interesting and suggestive. The 
State issued 100,000 ideal shares (that is, shares without any stated val- 
ue), each of which represented the right to 1/100, 000th of the income, and 
which were distributed among the owners in proportion to their pre-existing 
use rights. One question always raised about transferring inherited Indian 
lands to the tribe in return for "ideal shares" in tribal property is wheth- 
er an Indian will trade a tangible piece of land for an intangible share 
in tribal assets. The Murg boatmen did precisely this, and they have found 
their shares constantly increasing in value as the State has improved the 
forest management and increased its income. 

Three centuries from now, our descendants will probably be re- 
counting how, after much argument and quarreling, the Indians and their ad- 
visors finally straightened out all this growing tangle of private owner- 
ship on the Indian reservations, enormously simplified the Indians' use of 
their own lands, and improved the resources and increased the income by good 
management . 



Army Tank Is A Turtle 

WITH THE THIRD ARMY IN WESTERN LOUISIANA. The 32nd division in 
current war maneuvers here has armed 17 Michigan and Wisconsin Indians with 
microphones and worked out a radio communications code that the enemy prob- 
ably never will crack. 

Nine Indians from a western Wisconsin tribe, four from a northern 
Wisconsin tribe, and four from a northern Michigan tribe were found able 
to transmit and receive messages in their native tongues. 

Indian vocabularies do not contain any modern military terms, 
and to overcome this, a tank became a "turtle", airplanes became various 
kinds of insects, and arms of service such as infantry, field artillery 
and cavalry were designated by colors. Old Indian words were improvised 
for other military terms. Beaumont , Texas. The Enterprise* 8/21/41. 




George La Vatta Wins Recognition 
As An Outstanding Indian 

Today Indians are found in 
many professions and vocations, filling 
their places in modern civilization ef- 
fectively. Indicative of some of the 
recent progress of the Indian race in 
this country, is the annual presentation 
of an Achievement Award by the Indian 
Council Fire of Chicago, Illinois, to 
the Indian whose accomplishments are 
considered outstanding. 

George P. LaVatta, three-quar- 
ter-blood Shoshone Indian of the Fort 
Hall Reservation in Idaho, has been se- 
lected to receive the honor this year. 
Presentation of the award was made by 
the Council Fire at its annual American 
Indian Day observance. 

Mr. LaVatta has been an active 
and earnest worker in Indian 
affairs. He received his education at 
the Fort Hall Boarding School and the Pocatello Public School in Idaho, 
the Simon Muhr School in Philadelphia and graduated from the Carlisle In- 
dian School. In his earlier employment, working as a store clerk with a 
mercantile company in Idaho, George LaVatta found little satisfaction. 
Desiring to make a change, he applied, not once but many times, to the "Un- 
ion Pacific Railroad for employment, and his persistence finally gpt 
him a place as laborer. His diligence in this minor capacity attracted the 
attention of his superiors and he received numerous promotions. His last 
few years with the company were spent in helping to organize safety, wel- 
fare and good-will programs for employees. While employed here Mr. La- 
Vatta took night courses in organization and personnel work. Still feeling 
a responsibility for his Tribe, he did much voluntary work on his reserva- 
tion and assisted qualified Indian boys and girls to obtain profitable em- 
ployment. At the end of 12 years service, the Railroad presented him with 
a Meritorious Service button. Mr. LaVatta left the Union Pacific in 1929 
to accept a position in the Indian Service. He subsequently received ap- 
pointments as Placement Agent and Assistant Guidance and Placement Officer. 
In the latter position his duties consisted of obtaining employment for In- 
dians, helping superintendents and Indians in organization and work proj- 
ects, 4.-H Club and stock association work, and assisting Indian young peo- 
ple to secure educational and vocational training. 

On July 1, 1935, Mr. LaVatta became Organization Field Agent for 
the Indian Service in the Pacific Northwest. His responsibilities as in- 



George P. LaVatta 



15 

cumbent of this, his present position, include assisting Indian tribes to 
set up machinery for writing constitutions > holding tribal elections and 
developing tribal responsibility for political self-government, as well as 
organizing economic programs working toward tribal self-sufficiency, all of 
which are measures outlined in the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.. Mr. 
LaVatta is one of six Indians employed by the Organization Division of the 
Indian Service as Field Agents. 

In speaking of Mr. LaVatta 's work, John Collier, Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs, said: "He has made rich and varied contributions to the In- 
dian people and to the Service. He has interested himself in the work of 
all the branches of the Service, notably such activities as arts and crafts, 
employment of Indians, education, rehabilitation efforts of the Indians, 
and the development of Indian initiative in the supervision and management 
of their own affairs. His character and personality have contributed a 
great deal to the cause of inter-racial friendship." 

Montana Cree- Chippewa Indian Develops A Coal Mine 

By R. W. Windbigler, Road Engineer at Rocky Boy's Reservation 

A bright future is in store for Raymond LaDue, Chippewa-Cree In- 
dian of the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation in Montana who first started 
prospecting on a coal mine back in 1938. 

Many days of hard labor had been put in prospecting and in pre- 
liminary investigation before word reached the Agency office. Consider- 
able help was needed to get an enterprise of this nature under way. In 
addition to obtaining equipment to operate the mine, it was necessary to 
construct two miles of road up a rugged mountain canyon in order to make 
the mine accessible from the reservation road system. 

An investigation by the Agency superintendent and road engineer 
revealed that there were possibilities, if Mr. LaDue was willing to put in 
many more long hours completing the work he had started. The agency road 
department agreed to cooperate in the location and construction of the road 
leading to the mine which is just below the summit of Centennial Mountain 
approximately five thousand feet above sea level. Neighbors and friends 
of the prospective owner-operator donated their time in clearing the road- 
way site of brush, blasting the rock and constructing two timber bridges. 
Road machinery was moved in and operated sixteen hours per day to complete 
the grading as quickly as possible. All of the operations worked out smooth- 
ly so that the road was ready for use when the mine production started. 

Trucks started hauling in August 1939, furnishing coal for Agency 
use and to outside points within a radius of one hundred miles from the 
mine. During the first year of operation the output was approximately 375 
tons per month in season with only a limited amount of equipment available. 

(Continued on next page) 




Take Our Picture, Mister- 
Riverside Boarding School, Oklahoma. 



(Continued from preceding page) 



Through Mr. LaDue's perserverence the mine has constantly been 
developed and improved. At present, considerable expansion is under way 
to take care of the additional demand for the high-grade coal. A new air 
compressor has just been installed. A new undercutter will soon be ready 
for use. Showers are being installed along with improvements in accommoda- 
tions for the workmen and truck drivers. Four thousand dollars in improve- 
ment during the past year will increase mine production to about 125 tons 
per day. Arrangements have been made with the Great Northern Railroad for 
a loader at Box Elder so that coal will be shipped by rail as far east as 
Fargo, North Dakota. 

"The days that have passed were very cloudy at times, but the fu- 
ture looks brighter," said Mr. LaDue in anticipation of removing half a 
million tons of coal out of the mountain. A few years ago it was just a 
plan for the future. 




17 



Mr. Skidmore 



Employment Of Indians 
Is Part Of His Job 



(The following personal- 
ity sketch appeared in the third 
issue of PERSONNEL BULLETIN, new 
publication of the Department of 
the Interior:) 

E. J. Skidmore is Per- 
sonnel Officer for the largest 
bureau of the Department of the 
Interior, the Office of Indian 
Affairs. Unique among Federal 
agencies, the Indian Service em- 
braces many of the phases of gov- 
ernmental activity commonly as- 
sociated with other Federal serv- 
ices and with the work of state 
and local units. 



Its activities include general administration, education, health, 
welfare, home and farm extension work, irrigation, forestry, land manage- 
ment, soil conservation, road construction, law enforcement, probate of In- 
dian estates, construction and maintenance of Indian Service buildings and 
utilities, and the Indian Division of the Civilian Conservation Corps. The 
personnel problems resulting from this diversity of activity are supple- 
mented by many other problems arising out of conditions of employment in 
the Service - the extreme isolation of most of its field stations; problems 
associated with the community life of an Indian agency; and those inherent 
in working with groups of differing cultural backgrounds. The Bureau employs 
nearly 4-00 persons in Washington and approximately 12,000 in the field. Of 
this group, more than 50 per cent are Indian. Its field units, but with few 
exceptions, are located west of the Mississippi River and in the Territory 
of Alaska. 

With more than 34- years' experience in the field of personnel man- 
agement, Mr. Skidmore is well qualified to handle the problems which come to 
his desk each day. Upon completion of a course in business administration, 
Mr. Skidmore was employed for a year as a stenographer by the Michigan Cen- 
tral Railroad. On July 1, 1907, he entered the Federal Service through com- 
petitive Civil Service examination, receiving his first appointment in the 
Bureau of Insular Affairs, then under the jurisdiction of the War Depart- 
ment. He was employed in that bureau for ten years, the majority of which 
he handled all appointments from the United States to the Philippine Is- 
lands. During part of this period he studied political science at the 
George Washington University. 



(Continued on page 19) 




A Story Of The West - 
An Unusual Career 



After 39 years in Govern- 
ment service, Captain George M. Nyce, 
Indian Service employee for many 
years, retired to private life on 
July 31. During these years he serv- 
ed the Government as Deputy United 
States Marshal on the Fort Apache 
Indian Reservation in Arizona, rang- 
er in the Forest Service, supervisor 
and regional director of the Indian 
Forestry and Grazing Service in the 
Northwest, and at various intervals 
was a soMier, cowpuncher and showman. 



'Cap" Nyce 



So unusual are the adventures in the life of "Cap" Nyce, as he 
is known to his many friends throughout the Service, that to catalog the 
outstanding events is to tell a real western thriller. Born in Milford, 
Pennsylvania, July 5, 1876, George Nyce was the son of Col. John W. Nyce 
and Mattie Allen Nyce. His father died when George was three years old, 
and the family moved to southern Kansas. It was not many years later that 
George, the youngest member of the family, decided to make his own way in 
the world. At the age of eleven, he headed for Texas, where, because of 
his strength and size, he was able to convince ranch bosses that he actual- 
ly was older than his years, and they put him to work wrangling horses. 
At the age of thirteen he rode a horse in a wild west show in the East. 
Before he was twenty he had been shot three times and on each occasion by 
a drunken cowboy. 

With the exception of short periods when he was off to other ad- 
ventures, George Nyce continued in various phases of cowpunching or ranch 
work until he joined the Army in the Spanish-American War of 1898. He sign- 
ed up with the Third United States volunteer cavalry, Grigsby's Rough Rid- 
ers. At Chickamauga Park, Georgia, he became ill with typhoid fever and 
was transferred about. In the confusion of war, his name and hospital 
chart were inadvertently left on the bed he vacated. Another man was placed 
in the bed who died almost immediately, and hospital attendants, glancing 
at the bed chart, recorded "George M. Nyce, dead." Meantime, Nyce was mak- 
ing a speedy recovery in New Hampshire and within a short time was well 
enough to rejoin his regiment. Because he was classified for more than 
ten months as a "dead man", Nyce had difficulty, along with over 300 other 



19 



men, in being re-instated in active Army service and on Government rolls. 
Finally these men were all brought back to official life by an Act of Con- 
gress. Mr. Nyce then served in Cuba for thirty-three months. During this 
time he suffered from smallpox, yellow fever, malaria and other ailments. 

In 1909 Mr. Nyce entered the National Forest Service and was 
assigned to duty in northern Arizona as assistant ranger. While with the 
Forest Service, he set up the first fire lookout. In connection with his 
forest protection duties on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation he also 
acted as Deputy United States Marshal. 

He transferred to the Indian Service as ranger from the Forest 
Service in 1912, and, with the exception of another short period of Army 
service in the World War, has been "on the job ever since", with duties 
at the Fort Apache, Mescalero, Flathead and Coeur d'Alene Indian Agencies. 
In 1930 he was made regional forester of the Indian Forestry and Grazing 
Division, with headquarters at Billings, Montana, which position he held 
until his retirement. The Billings Forestry office supervises the activ- 
ities of Indian reservations in Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota 
and Nebraska. Nyce plans to continue making his home in Billings, Mon- 
tana. (Condensed from an article in The Billings Gazette , July 27, 19^1.) 

Ski dm ore's Career Outstanding 

(Continued from page 17) 

In February 1918, Mr. Skidmore was appointed Chief of the Person- 
nel Division of the United States Shipping Board, where he set up the per- 
sonnel organization of the Board and the Merchant Fleet Corporation. In 
1921, he was appointed Personnel Officer for all home, field, and foreign 
activities, and with the passage of the Classification Act of 1923, he was 
designated to assist in the classification of the employees of the Board 
and the Merchant Fleet Corporation. 

In 1933 the Tennessee Valley Authority asked for Mr. Skidmore' s 
assignment as office manager for their Washington Office and he remained 
with this agency until the central office was transferred to Tennessee in 
1934. 

Mr. Skidmore entered the Department of the Interior in April 
193<+, when he was appointed a classification examiner for the Public Works 
Administration. Three months later he was promoted to Assistant Personnel 
Officer of the Administration. Subsequently he was assigned to the Secre- 
tary's Office where he served as chief of the section handling Emergency 
Conservation Work personnel matters. Mr. Skidmore has served as Personnel 
Officer of the Indian Service since his transfer to that bureau on June 1, 
1936. 

(Since Mr. Crosthwait was made Executive Officer of the new Of- 
fice of Petroleum Coordinator, Mr. Skidmore has been Acting Assistant to 
the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in Charge of Personnel. The Editor. ) 




Joe Garry, Kalispel Indian, Mrs. Roosevelt, and Congressman John Tolan. 
Garry is a direct descendant of Chief Spokane, the first educated Indian 
in the Northwest. 



21 



YOUNG INDIAN BOY FINDS WAY OUT FOR HIS PEOPLE 

By Joe Garry 

The movement toward cooperation on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation 
had its origin at DeSmet, Idaho, in events back in 1937, when Sister Prov- 
idencia, who had just become a member of the staff of instructors at the 
Convent of Mary Immaculate, organized the Kateri Club. This club was or- 
ganized for the purpose of reviving Indian art not only among the Coeur d'- 
Alenes, but among the other neighboring tribes as well, and to apply some 
of them, particularly the buckskin, to articles of practical value, thereby 
elevating the Indian art of that section to a level much higher than that of 
the mere souvenir for Eastern tourists. 

As the membership increased, marketing problems became very acute 
and better marketing organization appeared to be the only solution. Along 
with its growth, the Kateri gained many friends and from one of these con- 
tacts came the idea that it should operate on a cooperative basis. But what 
was cooperation and how could it be applied? We learned that a small col- 
lege, St. Francis Xavier, Antigonish, Nova Scotia, had had great success in 
promoting the cooperative movement among fishermen, coal miners and farmers. 

After some correspondence between the Kateri Club and St. F. X. 
College, as it is commonly called by the people of eastern Canada, it was 
decided that I should attend one of the short courses given by this Univer- 
sity. All arrangements were made for my enrollment in this course, but at 
the last minute, due to war conditions, the course was called off. Word 
came, however, that I should come in any case and do the best I could. I 
spent the most part of February in this little Nova Scotia college and made 
some investigation in the areas where the adult education and cooperative 
movements are being carried on. 

In the vicinity of Antigonish is carried on farmers' cooperative 
marketing where wheat, poultry, and dairy products are sold in lots common- 
ly known as pools. In Reserve Mines the miners, under the leadership of Dr. 
Tompkins, are moving out of the hideous little coal company houses into 
fine modern homes built by the people themselves through cooperation. Rec- 
ords show that the fishermen of eastern Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and 
Prince Edward Island have so organized their fishing industries that they 
are getting three times more revenue than they did before they organized. 
Not only that, but fishermen were building their own canning and processing 
factories and by means of buying clubs were purchasing fishing implements 
such as gears, boats and nets at much lower prices. All these community 
cooperative stores and credit unions are doing a tremendous business. 



22 



These achievements were not brought about by a mere happy acci- 
dent. They are the result of a well-planned organization whose movements 
are guided by the St. F. X. College through its extension workers. Although 
St. F. X. is a Catholic institution, its extension program, of which Dr. M. 
M. Coady is the head, is not confined to Catholics alone. It is a mixed 
group as far as creed is concerned. Clergymen of all denominations are 
leaders in the movement. These men first contacted the key men of the com- 
munities and through them organized study clubs and later established 
libraries. The books and pamphlets brought to the people are in line with 
their immediate problems. The men of St. F. X. are not entirely dependent 
upon theories but look more to the common people for ideas and develop lead- 
ers from those who know and live among their own problems. This adult ed- 
ucation, the way of bringing the university to the people, has proved to 
be the foundation for a successful cooperative movement in Maritime Canada. 
These people are taught never to enter into any project unless it has been 
thoroughly studied. As in the case of the housing group at Reserve Mines, 
they studied pamphlets and blueprints on buildings for months before any 
attempt was made to build. These same principles are applied to credit 
unions and cooperative stores. 

According to authorities there were many illiterates among these 
people who had to be taught to read and write, and they did it willingly 
for they realized that it was an important step toward solving their own 
problems. These are the common people. 

Could the Indian be classed with the common people? We have only 
to look to our poorer reservations of the West to realize the necessity of 
developing leaders among them as nuclei to promoting programs similar to 
those in operation in Maritime Canada. The masses of today have been false- 
ly impressed by the exploiters that there is nothing left for them to do. 
This machine age has so bewildered them that they just stand back to watch 
the revolutions of the wheels of industry operated by the supposed superi- 
or as he prepares the various articles by which they are later to be served. 
From here the middle man takes his turn to prey on the common people. He 
so fascinates their imaginations with advertisements that he could nam e 
the prices on his own articles and service. 

Cooperative organization, with its primary and more immediate 
purposes could eliminate a large percentage of these evils by securing bet- 
ter prices for the products of its members and creating a more profitable 
bargain through organized purchasing and still more important, eliminate 
the middle man, leaving what would be his profit, to be enjoyed by the mem- 
bers of the organization. 

True purpose in cooperation, although largely dependent on these 
economic aspects, does not begin nor end here. We have still to look to 
the more basic principles upon which the organization must stand. We must 
realize the superior powers of a group over that of an individual; we must 
realize the significance of adult education to be accomplished by study 
clubs; we must realize the importance of this move in general as a step 
toward the restoration of social and economic justice. 




A Mo jaw Couple At Parker Dam, Arizona- 





$£ H 



2^*^' 





25 



Indians In the Ale 



ews 

The Navajo Indians of Arizona and New Mexico, famed as silversmiths 
learned the art from Mexicans they captured about the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania . The Bulletin. 8-27-41. 



Three homesick Sioux Indians have quit their jobs in the movies and head- 
ed for their homes at the Standing Rock Agency, Fort Yates, North Dakota. They 
were among sixteen Dakota Indians taken to Hollywood for central roles in a west- 
ern production. Their pay, turned over to the Bureau of Indian Affairs for credit to 
their accounts at Standing Rock, was $11 per day, the standard guild scale rate. 
Spokesmen for the group indicated that the hotel where the Indians were living was 
too noisy and the studio life too confusing. "Money? Ugh!", he grunted. "On res- 
ervation make $9 a week CCC - sleep nights - no headaches." Rockford . Illinois. 
The Star. 8-21-41. 



Turnabout of the traditional ceremony in which Indians make white men 
honorary "chiefs" in their tribes took place when Governor Julius P. Heil bestowed 
upon Chief Yellow Thunder of the Winnebago Indian Tribe an honorary membership 
in the white race. Chief Yellow Thunder humorously acknowledged acceptance of 
the "white man's burden," declaring: "I am aware of the great new life ahead of 
me. I must give up many privileges for new experiences. I must give up the sim- 
plicity of the American Indian life for worries about my neighbors' affairs." In a 
more serious mood he said: "To be the first American Indian taken in by the white 
race is indeed an honor ... I hope and trust that it may be significant of a growing 
spirit of sympathy and understanding between the white people and my own." Hunt - 
in gton, West Virginia. The Herald- Advertiser . 8-17-41. 

Arizona's 50,000 Indians are divided into fourteen tribes, each with its 
own social, economic and cultural background. Minot , North Dakota . The News. 
8-14-41. 



Superintendents of five Indian agencies represented their jurisdictions in 
a recent discussion with state and Federal Social Security officials, regarding a 
budget for Indian participation in a food stamp plan for the State of South Dakota. 
The agencies represented were Rosebud, Pine Ridge, Crow Creek, Cheyenne River 
and'Standing Rock. Rapid City, South Dakota. The Journal. 8-13-41. 



A new and interesting publication has been written about the Florida Sem- 
inole Indians. It is "The Seminoles in Florida", compiled by workers of the WPA 
Federal Writers' Project and published by the State Department of Agriculture. It 
contains numerous pictures and a map showing the site of the various camps through- 
out south Florida. The book presents a history of the Tribe, giving factual material 
about their tradition, character, laws, customs and occupations. It also pictures 
present-day Seminole life. Tampa , Florida. The Tribune. 8-18-41. 








At A Celebration In Flathead Country, Montana. 



27 



Plans for the establishment of a log cabin trading post to preserve Amer- 
ican Indian handicraft and the traditions of Indian tribesmen inhabiting the vicinity 
of Miami, Oklahoma, for a half century have been drafted by the Chamber of Com- 
merce. It is said that Indian workers who have lost employment with the recent 
abandonment of the local WPA Handicraft Project, would make blankets, trinkets of 
all kinds, weave baskets and make other articles for sale at the post. The trading 
post would be operated on a self-sustaining basis, with Indians selling their work to 
a post manager and he, in turn, would resell the articles to tourists. Tulsa , Okla- 
homa. The World. 8-10-41. 



A large collection of Latin-American Indian material, gathered by the 
late William Barnwell Kelly of Charleston, South Carolina, has been given to the 
Charleston Museum. The exhibit consists of shrunken human heads made by the 
Jivary Indians of Peru, poisoned darts for use in a blow gun, a gourd poison contain- 
er, a number of bows and arrows, intricately decorated beaten metal ornaments of 
beetle wings, of carved teeth and of carved woods, spears made of chonta wood, 
beads, clothing and woven materials. Charleston, South Carolina . The Post. 8-14-41. 



Redmen of the East and the Southwest competed for the North American 
Indian dance championship during Gallup's 20th Inter-tribal Indian Ceremonial. An 
all-star Indian dance team from New England and Canada invaded the desert coun- 
try. Southwestern tribesmen, accepting a challenge to the contest, nominated more 
than a dozen of their best dancers to carry their laurels in the inter- sectional com- 
petition. Dance competitions have been held each year at Gallup among Southwest- 
ern tribes, but the contest this year was the first inter- sectional one. There was 
also an arts and crafts competition this year. Indian craftsmen from New Mexico, 
Arizona, Colorado, Oklahoma and New York offered their Indian-made wares. The 
exhibit hall was crammed with $200,000 worth of entries. Salt Lake City, Utah . 
The Tribune. 8-10-41. 



The Hopi Indians of the Southwest want it understood that their famous 
snake dance is a sacred ritual and is not to be copied by persons off the reservation. 
The trouble began when the Hopis learned that a group of white men and, as they 
termed it, "misled Indians", were staging a "rattlesnake" dance to attract tourists. 
In their protest, the Hopis pointed out that in the first place the real and only dance 
is held on the reservation in August. Secondly, the real dance is never advertised, 
nor is admission charged, inasmuch as the dance is a sacred ritual and not intended 
to be a money- making venture. Lewiston , Maine. The Sun. 8-22-41 . 



While some of the other boys and girls of northern North Dakota spent 
summer playing, 450 Indian children of the Turtle Mountain Reservation stuck to 
their studies. It wasn't all book learning, however. Pupils at the summer school 
cared for 80 acres of farm land and, in addition, have undertaken a variety of proj - 
ects. A major portion of the produce harvested went to the homes of the pupils and 
some they sold, two-thirds of the profits going to the 40 farm club members. Other 
projects were poultry-raising, a cooperative store, basket weaving, loom work, 
wood and metal work, mechanics, and dressmaking. Minot, North Dakota . The 
News. 9-23-41. 



28 



from the Mail Sag 



September 2, 1941. 
Dear Sir: 

I am calling to your attention the photo of "Chaca", Hopi, which appeared 
on page 27 of the August 1941 issue of "Indians At Work." 

When we were among the Hopi, nearly 49 years ago, I took a stereoscopic 
view of what I named "Chaca, The Runner", because he carried a message for Mr. 
Keams, the trader, to the railroad which was 85 miles away.. .He ran down on foot 
one day and ran back the next. He ran through mesquite, sagebrush, cacti, and 
among the buttes, a trip his horse could not have made in this length of time. Forty 
years have brought wrinkles to Chaca 's face. 

Sincerely yours, 
J. H. Bratley. 

Memorandum to the Commissioner: 

In a recent report from Mr. H. J. Doolittle, District Highway Engineer, 
covering a visit to the Northern Idaho jurisdiction, he states that three of the In- 
dians employed on the road program at Northern Idaho have taken private work; one 
at $175 per month as mechanic and two at $1.25 per hour as bulldozer operators. 
He states that others will soon leave to take jobs as truck drivers at 90 cents per 
hour. 

This condition is typical of the attention the Roads Division is giving the 
training feature of its program in teaching Indians who have an aptitude for machine 
operation to acquire skills which will permit them to obtain employment at high 
wages in private industries. While, no doubt, the demands of the Defense Program 
have opened this opportunity, still when the opportunity was presented, these Indians 
were found ready and able to step into the vacancies. 

J. Maughs Brown, 

Acting Director of Highways. 



Dear Sir: 

The dates set for the staging of our Adobe Walls Pageant, and the dedi- 
cation of the Indian Monument are October 16 to 20, 1941. Within the next few days 
the Indians will set the monument and will have their ceremony at the battleground 
on Sunday, October 19. 

Yours very truly, 

Borger Chamber of Commerce, Borger, Texas. 

(Signed) H. N. Pruett, Manager. 

"...Some 400 Comanches and relatives wish to make the pilgrimage ... 
I have every reason to believe these ceremonies, when carried out like we want 
them, will probably be the last real, sacred, religious ceremonies (not exhibition) 
that the Comanche and Cheyenne Indians will ever indulge in. "(Excerpts from letter 
written by Albert Atocknie, 70-year-old full-blood Comanche, in regard to t h-e 
above celebration to take place near Borger, Texas. 



I 



r J 





Navajo CCC Workers Build A Storage Dam Near Indian Wells, Arizona. 



31 



INDIANS CONSERVING AND REBUILDING 
THEIR RESOURCES THROUGH CCC-ID. 

An Indian Tells How To Keep From Being Hurt Or Killed 

I will start at the beginning when this organization was known as 
the I.E.C.W. I began working for the I.E.C.W. indirectly, by driving a 
private truck. It was the best truck that was hired at the time. I don't 
know what made the owner and I make it more safe than the other trucks; 
probably it was because we believed in safety a little and the looks of 
our truck. When anything went wrong with the truck, we would work late 
at night to get it back on the job the next morning. 

While we were fighting fire, we would haul twenty to thirty -five 
men in one load without benches, guard rails, or ladders. They would lean 
over the side, leap on the cab, and ride on the fenders and running boards. 
I would drive for weeks with one tailgate off, and sometimes both off. The 
men would spring on and off the truck, and if the tails were on, they would 
climb over the side and jump off. It made no difference whether you w e re 
old or young; you got on or off the best way you knew how. 

After the I.E.C.W. bought its own trucks, I went along, hoping 
to get a job as a truck driver, but I was put in the field with the rest of 
the boys. When we went to work, all the tools would be on the floor of the 
truck and the men would have to stand on them. Safety was not thought of 
in those days, for we carried probably a box of dynamite, a barrel of gas 
and twenty to thirty men. I often think what would happen if this were 
true today. We probably wouldn't last very long in the CCC-ID. 

A little later the truck drivers were given ladders to use in 
the back of the trucks, for the men to get on and off. I remember a man 
who made fun of the ladder when I first used it. He came from the front 
of the truck and staggered up to the ladder and went up in a careless man- 
ner and when he reached the top he slipped and came down, bumping his head 
on the steps all the way, hurting himself. An old man standing nearby said: 
"Good enough for you. " I think the ladders on the trucks were the best 
thing that could happen. After the ladders were in for a while, we were 
given benches that could also be used for tool boxes. There were no more 
tools on the floor for the men to get hurt on. These were greatly appreci- 
ated. 

After a while, we were given "tarps" to use in the winter. It 
was a lot warmer and more comfortable for the men. As time went on, the 
exhaust pipes were changed so that they stuck out the side of the truck 
and the fumes did not enter the "tarp. " 




Da/os Lone Wolf, We ll-Known Kiowa Leader, Presides At Oklahoma Inter-Tribal Meeting 



33 

I hope some day to see turn signals in back of the trucks so that 
we will not have to stick out our arms to make turns, because all the motor- 
ists do not stick to the same rules. I believe there should be a truck in 
every unit for hauling men only - a real safe truck. 

There are so many ways in which we are becoming more safe, that 
it is hard to believe that we let so many things go on in the past a3 did. 

I want to thank everyone that taught me safety and I might even say - pro- 
longed my life. I am trying to teach safety as it was taught to me and 
perhaps even a little better. I have noticed that a man doing an unsafe 
thing is greatly criticized and he never does the same thing twice. I 
would like to see many more safety ideas to prove that safety is here to 
stay. 

(Signed) Frank C. Cobb, Leader, CCC-ID, 
Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Wisconsin. 

Pawnees Help Build Airplanes 

Isiah Williams, Arnold Stanley and John Means, former CCC-ID en- 
rollees at the Pawnee Indian Agency, Pawnee, Oklahoma, are putting to prac- 
tical use the training they received in the Aircraft Sheet Metal Training 
School under the National Defense Program. They are at present employed 
in this type of work in Wichita, Kansas, on a seven-day week basis, doing 
all they can to assist in defense efforts. 

Indian Self -Government In Kiowa CCC-ID 

The Fort Cobb CCC-ID Camp, under the Kiowa Indian Agency, Anadar- 
ko, Oklahoma, has instituted what is known as the Enrollees 1 Council, the 
purpose of which is similar to that of student councils. Members of this 
group are Joe Kodaseet, Albert Aunko, Billy Botone, Leon Smith, Henry She- 
mayme, Winston Rose, Adolph Tahbonemah, and Howard Niyah, representing the 
Comanche, Kiowa, Caddo, Wichita and Cherokee Indian Tribes. 

The Council hopes to bring about a closer cooperation between the 
enrollees and personnel by serving as a medium of expression for the en- 
rollees with regard to the enrollee program and CCC-ID activities in gen- 
eral. Among its duties, the Council will undertake the disciplining of 
enrollees for minor infractions of regulations, determining the extent and 
nature of the of f ense. and equitable punishment. It will establish rules 
of mutual benefit to all, see that they are enforced, and act as .repre- 
sentative for enrollees in all matters. 



An outstanding example of the versatility of the Indian enrollee 
is the manner in which First-Aid Instructors Yale Tanequoot, Edgar Mone- 
tatchi and Milo Ross conduct their classes at Kiowa. Each instructor uses 
his native dialect to insure a thorough understanding of procedures by 
trainees from the several tribes. 




■ 
IliHillKKUW f 



A GREAT LAWMAKER IS DEAD 



Congressman Edward T„ Taylor, of Colorado, Chairman of the House 
Committee on Appropriations, is dead in his eighty-fourth year. What the whole of 
the Interior Department - of all the myriad human concerns centered in it - owed to 
Congressman Taylor, is quite beyond estimate. What the Indians owed, is beyond 
estimate. But here, it is the personal qualities of this great and sweet old man which 
should be mentioned. He was a man all-human, of good will never failing, with no 
taint of malice ever; yet when sustaining a position of his own or representing the 
wishes of the House as a conferee, he could be firm as an oak tree's bole. To Ed- 
ward Taylor there were no human or social inferiors, and there were none who 
could feel superior to him. 

I wondered how a picture of this man could be given in words, and there 
drifted into my thought a passage from The Meditations of Marcus Antoninus Aureli- 
us. It described the teacher, Maximus, who tutored the young Antoninus into his 
fitness to become the perfect King and perfect subject. The words without any 
change can be applied to Edward Taylor. 

"From Maximus I learnt self-government, and not to be led aside by 
anything; and cheerfulness in all circumstances, as well as in illness; and a just ad- 
mixture in the moral character of sweetness and dignity, and to do what was set be- 
fore me without complaining. I observed that everybody believed that he (Maximus) 
thought as he spoke, and that in all that he did he never had any bad intention; and he 
never showed amazement and surprise, nor did he ever laugh to disguise his vexa- 
tion, nor, on the other hand, was he ever passionate or suspicious. He was accus- 
tomed to do acts of beneficence, and was ready to forgive, and was free from all 
falsehood; and he presented the appearance of a man who could not be diverted from 
right rather than of a man who had been improved. I observed, too, that no man 
could ever think that he was despised by Maximus, or ever venture to think himself 
a better man." 

For as long as districts can elect men like Edward Taylor to their Con- 
gress, and Congress can honor men like him, free and purposeful government in the 
United States is a reality. 

John Collier 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs 

Editor's Note: The following facts are condensed from Mr. Taylor's bi- 
ography in the Congressional Directory, May 1941: "...He has achieved several of- 
ficial distinctions, none of which has ever been duplicated by anyone else during our 
congressional history: His successive elections to the State Senate 12 years and to 
the Congress 34 years, January 1897 to January 1943. All of his Congressional serv- 
ice has been after he was 50 years of age; no one else has ever been so honored, in 
fact, of the about 8,300 Members of the House since the first Congress in 1789, only 
4 others have ever been elected 17 successive times. He has been the author of 
more State laws and constitutional amendments and Federal laws combined than any- 
one else. He is Dean of the House in age and Chairman of the Appropriations Com- 
mittee, 75th, 76th, and 77th Congresses ... 

He is the author of over a hundred Federal laws, two of the most impor- 
tant of which are the Taylor Grazing Act, and the 640-acre stock-raising home- 
stead law - two of the greatest conservation laws ever enacted. ..." 



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